Cohabitees Rebecca Steinfeld and Charles Keidan have been unsuccessful in their legal challenge at the Court of Appeal. The decision the Court had to make was whether to extend the law to allow opposite-sex couples to enter into civil partnerships.
Category: Civil partnerships
Civil partnerships legal information written by family lawyers with experience with civil partnership law in the UK, US and across the world.
The court system publicly pits husband versus wife, mother versus father, according to collaborative lawyer Adam B. Cordover. On the heels of the fifth anniversary of his law firm, he declares that he will no longer take part and announces his firm’s new focus and name as Family Diplomacy: A Collaborative Law Firm.
(Victorian & Australian Law. Click here for Top Family Lawyers in Australia)
In recent times, the jurisdiction of property disputes in Family Law has broadened. Traditionally, property was only divisible between married or divorced couples. De-facto and same sex partners are now able to apply for a property settlement, though under different law. In the absence of agreement between the parties, an application for the settlement of a property dispute is made to the court, to be decided on the basis of need.
The settlement reached becomes legally binding and enforceable by the courts. Here’s a rough guide to what usually happens in these situations…
Parties can make a property settlement by agreement or, if agreement cannot be reached, make an application to the court for a property settlement. Applications for the division of property after divorce can be made to the Family Court or to the Federal Magistrates Court where a property dispute is worth less than $700,000.
Only parties who are or were married can make an application for a property settlement under the Family Law Act 1975 (Cth). In the case of divorce, an application must be made within 12 months of receiving the decree absolute. De-facto and same sex partners can make an application under the Property Law Act 1958 (Vic) in the Supreme Court, County Court or Magistrates’ Court.
Once an application is made, the parties will be asked to attend a case conference, with the aim of settling the property dispute by agreement before it goes to court. Present at this conference will be the parties, any family lawyer involved and a court registrar. If this conference is unsuccessful, the parties will go to court.
Property disputes in de-facto and same sex relationships (domestic relationships) are dealt with under the Property Law Act 1958 (Vic). A domestic relationship is a relationship between two people (regardless of gender) who live together as a couple on a domestic basis but are not married. The domestic relationship must have existed for at least two years for an application for a property dispute to be made under Part 9 of the Property Law Act . If there are exceptional circumstances, for example children being born out of the relationship, this two-year period can be waived. The relationship must have ended after 8 November 2001 for Part 9 to apply.
The type of property divisible in a property settlement includes assets, cash, real estate, investments, insurance policies and superannuation. Debts are also taken into account. In a domestic relationship, as governed by the Property Law Act , superannuation and retirement benefits are not included in a property settlement. In making an order for property settlement, the court calculates the total pool of assets of the parties.
The division of these assets is based on both contributions made by each of the parties to the asset pool and future needs. The contributions of the parties include non-financial contributions, which means a homemaker will not be disadvantaged in this assessment. Future needs takes into account who is responsible for the daily care of the children, earning capacity, age, health and the financial circumstances of any new relationship. The aim is to distribute the property fairly between the two parties.
If you believe your partner is going to dispose of assets before the total pool of assets is calculated you can obtain an injunction to stop the sale taking place. Bank accounts and proceeds from the sale of any assets that has already taken place can also be frozen.
A party can apply for ongoing spousal maintenance if they can prove they are unable to support themselves. This application must be made within 12 months of divorce. An application for spousal maintenance is often included with an application for property settlement so that all financial issues are dealt with at once.
Spousal maintenance cannot be applied for where a domestic relationship exists.
If an agreement is reached between the parties, they can apply to the court for consent orders. This will make the agreement enforceable by the courts in case of dispute. Consent orders, once made, are final. A party must prove fraud, impracticality or other exceptional circumstances if they wish the consent orders to be set aside or varied.
If a party is not complying with the orders made, an application can be made to the court for enforcement. In this application, the party applying must set out exactly what the problem is. The court will then decide whether an order is needed to enforce the existing order.
A family law property settlement is an important process to go through after the breakdown of a marriage or domestic relationship. A property dispute can be settled by agreement between the parties or resolved by the court. Each case is unique and will be considered by the court according to its own circumstances. The court will not consider who is at fault in the breakdown of a relationship. Rather, it will be resolved on the basis of fairness and need.
Though the U.S. Supreme Court recently struck down portions of the federal Defense of Marriage Act (“DOMA”), state DOMAs were not affected by the ruling. This means that same sex couples cannot get legally married in states, such as Florida, that enacted a DOMA.
This also means that gay and lesbian couples cannot get divorced in many DOMA states and oftentimes do not have any legal remedy to separate. If the domestic partners did not adopt each other’s children, even if both partners had been considered the parents of the children, then child custody, visitation, and child support laws usually will not apply. Equitable distribution laws (laws related to division of marital assets and debts) do not apply, so separating property and liabilities can get real messy, real quick. Further, alimony and spousal maintenance laws do not apply, so a partner who spent years homemaking and taking care of children may suddenly become destitute. So what are separating same sex couples to do?
Domestic partners who are dissolving their relationship should seriously consider entering into a collaborative family law process.
Collaborative family law is a form of private dispute resolution that allows clients to enter into agreements and achieve results that could never be attained through a court process. Each client retains a separate attorney who advises and counsels the client and helps in the negotiating process. A neutral facilitator, who is a mental health professional or mediator, helps the clients focus on their interests, such as the welfare of clients’ children, continued relationships with each other’s family members, or financial stability. If there are substantial assets or debts or a business, a neutral accountant or financial planner will be brought in to educate the parties in finances, help fairly and cost-effectively divide property and liabilities, and, if requested, develop a budget for the clients’ future.
As you can see, collaborative family law is a holistic process that takes into account not only the legal, but also the emotional and financial needs of the clients.
The crux of collaborative family law is that the clients agree at the beginning that they will not seek to resolve their dispute through court battles, but rather they will come to a mutually agreeable settlement through this private process. The clients, and their attorneys, enter into a participation agreement which disqualifies the attorneys from representing the clients in any contested court action. This provides a safe space in collaborative meetings because each client knows that the other client’s attorney is not conducting opposition research and is committed solely to helping the clients reach a mutually acceptable agreement. This allows clients to feel more comfortable offering and listening to potential solutions.
In truth, the disqualification clause has much more of an effect on heterosexual couples who are getting divorced, rather than homosexual couples who are separating. This is because, as stated above, most DOMA state courts just do not have remedies that would properly address the clients’ concerns, and so attempts to fight it out in court will oftentimes be dismissed.
If you are experiencing a same sex separation, make sure to speak with an attorney who offers collaborative family law, and check to see whether the attorney has received collaborative law training that meets at least the minimum Basic Training standards of the International Academy of Collaborative Professionals.
If you have questions regarding a Tampa Bay collaborative family law process, or you want to learn more about your Florida family law rights, schedule a consultation with The Law Firm of Adam B. Cordover, P.A., at (813) 443-0615 or fill out our contact form.
Adam B. Cordover currently serves as Research Chair of the Collaborative Family Law Council of Florida and Vice President of the Collaborative Divorce Institute of Tampa Bay. Adam successfully spearheaded an effort of the Thirteenth Judicial Circuit of Florida to draft an administrative order safeguarding the principles of collaborative family law (just the fourth such administrative order in Florida) and has completed over 40 hours of basic and advanced collaborative family law continuing legal education credit.
Civil partnerships were introduced in the UK in 2005, but legislation such as the Matrimonial Causes Act 1973 has historically prevented the marriage of same sex couples. In a bid to step closer to equality, the Coalition Government introduced the Marriage (Same Sex Couples) Bill (“the Bill”) which will legalise the civil and religious marriage of same sex couples. If the Bill receives Royal Assent it will undoubtedly mark an important milestone in the battle for equality. A number of YouGov surveys published between 2012 and 2013 reveal that although the precise figures vary, the majority of participants have confirmed their support of the legalisation of same sex marriage.
On overview of the area
While the majority of the British public appear to be in favour of same sex marriage, presumably many of us anticipated that making it legal would simply require the Government to extend the current legislation to include the gay community. However, some unanticipated difficulties have arisen during the drafting of the required new legislation.
One of the main causes of confusion that has arisen is that under the present drafting adultery will only be a ground for divorce if the adultery has taken place between the cheating spouse and a member of the opposite sex. In other words, if two men are married and one of them is unfaithful with another man, his husband will not be able to petition him for divorce on grounds his adultery. Instead, he will have to rely on grounds of unreasonable behaviour. If, however, his husband were to be unfaithful with a woman, the aggrieved husband could petition for divorce on grounds of adultery.
There has been concern that some couples will choose to wed to benefit from tax and other reasons disassociated from traditional factors such as love and children. Others argue that those who take this view are simply opponents of same sex marriage seeking to opportunistically discredit the viability of the Bill.
The Marriage (Same Sex Couples) Bill was not featured in the Queen’s Speech this year, but it continues to progress speedily through the House of Commons and is expected to reach the House of Lords in June. The Bill may be subject to amendment on its way to Royal Assent and once it becomes law certain aspects may be made subject to judicial interpretation (for example, notions of consummation and adultery seem particularly vulnerable to litigation given the unanticipated difficulties). Despite the technical difficulties faced by the legislators so far, the majority of the British public supports the right of same sex couples to marry and we are well on the way to making it legal, despite some bumps in the road.
For more information on same sex marriage of any area of family and matrimonial law contact Lisa Kemp
As a gay or lesbian couple, you desire the same rights as heterosexual couples when it comes to building a family and creating a home where you feel safe and comfortable. Fortunately, the Civil Partnership Act that formally took effect in 2005 enables you to do so, and changes to that law in 2011 broadens your spectrum of rights.
In order to exercise your rights, however, you must first know what they are and stay informed on the evolving issue of civil partnerships. Here are the basics.
Civil Partnerships: What benefits do they include?
Civil partnerships in the UK have been designed to extend nearly the same rights as marriage does to heterosexual couples. These rights include domestic violence protections, inheritance tax exemptions, benefits for social security and pension, inclusion of both partners in tenancy contracts, next of kin rights, and the right to apply for responsibility for a partner’s children.
What’s the difference between a civil partnership and a marriage?
There are a few differences that can be highlighted when comparing the two legally-recognized relationships. Civil partnerships are created when the two parties involved sign official documents, rather than when they recite marriage vows. Also, during the dissolution of a civil partnership, adultery is not officially recognized as a reason to end the relationship. Though civil partners have pension rights in most cases, some private plans may not choose to recognize the relationship.
What are the latest changes regarding the legality of civil partnerships?
Civil partnerships were first legalized in November 2004 (taking effect officially a year later in December 2005). However, recent legislation, passed at the end of 2011, has broadened the recognitions for same-sex couples under the law.
When the Civil Partnership Act was passed, it stipulated that same-sex couples could not incorporate a religious ceremony (which included the use of symbols or music) into their formation of a civil partnership, nor could the ceremony take place at a religious venue. The new legislation relaxes these restrictions, allowing civil partnership ceremonies to be performed in religious dwellings. However, religious symbols and music are still forbidden.
Where in the world are civil partnerships recognized?
If you are making plans to spend time outside of the UK on holiday or move to a different country, the best way to find out if your travel plans will be affected by the recognition of your civil partnership (or lack of recognition) is to call or email the UK embassy in your travel destination to ask questions. In general, other countries that recognize civil unions are apt to honour your partnership.
The legal landscape of rights for same-sex couples continues to change. In March 2012, the UK government began a consultation concerning how to open the path for both gay and straight couples to have identical rights for civil partnerships and marriage. If you need legal advice concerning family issues surrounding a civil partnership, contacting a family law firm like Irwin Mitchell might be a good idea.
To find out more about the legal rights granted to civil partnerships, visit direct.gov.uk.
What To Look For When Seeking a Family Lawyer
If you’ve never been through the legal process before, realizing the amount of time, effort, and stress that go into it can be more than daunting. Hiring a lawyer alone is intimidating; how can you determine a good lawyer from a bad one if you’ve never had to hire one before? Below you’ll find the qualities you should look for when seeking the right lawyer for your family law case.
Background Information on the Practice of Law
There’s a misconception that a lawyer is a lawyer, in the sense that they all have the same knowledge and practice law. However, this is simply not the case. There are three types of lawyers you’ll come across on your lawyer search. Specialized lawyers are those whose practice is specialized in a specific type of law, such as personal injury law. General lawyers, i.e. lawyers that practice a broader area of law, might practice personal injury law and business law simultaneously. Then there are Referral lawyers. These lawyers may be either specialized or general lawyers, but they advertise as if they practice various types of law. When clients come to them in a specialty outside of their practice area, which is typical due to referral lawyers affinity to advertise a broad range of specialties, referral lawyers then refer the client to another attorney. The reason they do this is because referral lawyers get a percentage of the lawyer fees for all cases they refer out. For instance, Lawyer A refers a client to Lawyer B. When Lawyer B wins the case, Lawyer B must forfeit a percentage of his/her fees from the case. So, put bluntly, referral lawyers get paid for doing absolutely nothing in a case they’ve referred to another lawyer.
Qualities You Want in a Family Lawyer
You should look for three factors when determining if a lawyer is right for your divorce, separation, will, children’s rights or divorce settlement legal needs.
First, you should look for a lawyer who has experience handling family law cases. You will want to avoid “referral lawyers” as the fees they take can deter the lawyers they refer your case to from actually taking it; lawyers, like any professional, are in it for the money and if they have to forfeit percentage of their winnings on a case that already isn’t worth that much, they aren’t going to take it. You should seek out lawyers who have a long history of experience with family law cases and who have been successful with such cases. While a general attorney might have a lot of experience with family law cases, you should generally look for a lawyer who specializes in family law as he/she is the more likely to be adept to the legal procedures of such a case.
And do not rely on lawyer rating sites, like Super Lawyers, AVVO, and Best Lawyers to give you reliable information on a lawyer’s success rate and the like. These sites’ “rankings” are determined by how much a lawyer is willing to pay and the information on the lawyers is not generally verified by the lawyers themselves. For example, attorney John Smith might be stated as a family lawyer on a lawyer ranking site when in fact he is a slip and fall lawyer. You don’t want a personal injury lawyer handling your family law case, do you? It would be like having an accountant acting as your stock market investment advisor; it’s simply the wrong specialist handling the wrong specialty.
Second, you need a lawyer who is capable of giving your case the time and attention it deserves. And third, you need a lawyer with knowledge about your case type. General lawyers handle many different types of cases, which means they must have a vast working knowledge of different laws and law procedures. For instance, a general lawyer handling a business law case, a personal injury case, and a criminal case will need to know the necessary laws for each of those law specialties as well as the procedures required by each. That’s a lot of work and knowledge that a single person must endure and retain. A general lawyer may be less knowledgeable about your case type and less able to spend time on your case because he/she is handling so many different types of cases.
Amber Paley is a guest post and article writer bringing to us what qualities one should look for when seeking a family lawyer. Outraged by the prevalence of elder neglect in the U.S., Amber spends much of her professional life writing education articles to help those affected another’s negligible care find good nursing home abuse attorneys.
Below are 20 of the best family law blogs and news posts from around the web in the past week. If you have published or found a useful family law-related post that hasn’t been spotted, please do add a link to the comments section below.
Wanted: family justice narratives – Lucy Reed in the Guardian
Editor of the Pink Tape family law blog, Lucy Reed invites readers to share their experiences of working in the family justice system.
‘No good arguments against no fault divorce’, top judge says – Telegraph
Renewed calls for “no fault divorce” from Britain’s leading family law judge, Sir Nicholas Wall.
Launch of Family Law arbitration scheme marked by IFLA event – Family Law Week
On Monday 26 March 2012 the Institute of Family Law Arbitrators (IFLA) marked the launch of the new Family Law Arbitration Scheme.
Other blogs on the family law arbitration scheme:-
Family Law Arbitration in the UK – womeninlaw.com
Russell-Cooke welcomes the new Family Law Arbitration Scheme (26/03/12) – News – Russell-Cooke
Knights in shining armour? Family law arbitration rides to the rescue | jonesmyers blog
Lawrence v Gallagher  EWCA Civ 394 – Family Law Week
The Court of Appeal has ruled in Lawrence v Gallagher that the division of assets in a civil partnership ‘divorce’ should be treated in a similar way to those in a heterosexual divorce.
More blogs on Lawrence v Gallagher:
Lawrence v Gallagher: Judicial creations should not be elevated to the status of s.25 criteria – Family Lore
Divorce principles to apply to civil partnership breakup – FLB
Court of Appeal cuts civil partnership ‘divorce’ settlement- Gregorian Emerson
Fifty years in family law: Staffordshire University Conference – Marilyn Stowe Blog
Marilyn visited the Staffordshire University Law School’s Annual Family Law Conference this weekend and produces a comprehensive account of the event.
New Rules for Families? – Cotswold Family Law
Discussion and comment on The Family Justice Review (“FJR”).
New family laws are divorced from reality – Tehelka
Flavia Agnes takes a look at India’s family laws in this opinion piece, noting that moves to make divorces easier may look good on paper but may end up giving a raw deal to women who are not financially independent.
Surge in demand for domestic abuse advice during Old Firm match – CBC Blog
Shelter Scotland has reported a sharp rise in the number of visits to its website from women looking for help and advice on domestic abuse following its recent Facebook advertising campaign.
Conflict and violence in families – Austin Lafferty
National charity, 4Children, has recently published the results of its research into conflict and violence in families.
You Can’t Always Get What You Want – Marshall Chambers
A lesson for litigants: answers provided by the Court may not be the answers desired by the litigant; or any of the litigants!
Rise in international child flee cases – Pannone Family Law Blog
There has been a significant rise in child abduction cases in England and Wales, as per a Report out this week by Lord Justice Thorpe, chief of the Office of the Head of International Family Justice.
Family Lore: Grubb v Grubb: “To be involved in ancillary relief litigation is a dire prospect for any husband or wife”
The report of Grubb v Grubb  EWCA Civ 398, published on Bailii this week may be brief but it is not without interest. Family Lore comments.
Jennifer Brandt: Your First Meeting With A Divorce Lawyer
‘Getting a divorce is never a fun experience, but picking the right lawyer will help you cope with the process while getting a fair and equitable result’ says Jennifer Brandt. Her tips are blogged at the Huffington Post.
Mega-rich divorcees in court squabble over loose change | News.com.au
One from Australia: Having split the family’s $151,037,015 wealth with his ex-wife, a businessman realised he had overpaid and went to the Family Court to get his money back.
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The Divorce Process
Divorce is the legal process through which two people end their marriage and the legal status that it provides. It is usually an extremely emotional time for the parties involved and also for their children, if they have any. The best way to make your divorce process as smooth as possible is to find a solicitor who you can trust and work comfortably with.
It is important that both parties understand their legal position on divorce and know exactly to what they are entitled. A divorce solicitor can make sure finances and property are properly distributed and arrangements are made for children, leaving no room for disagreements.
Petitioning for divorce
In order to begin the process of divorce one party to the marriage must present a petition for divorce on the grounds that the marriage has broken down irretrievably. It is important to note that the parties must have been married for at least a year before they are able to make such a petition.
Whether the marriage is broken down irretrievably is not simply a matter of opinion, and there is legislation stating that at least one of five factors must be present before any court will make a ruling that the marriage has in fact broken down irretrievably. These five grounds for divorce are as follows: unreasonable behaviour, adultery, living apart for two years and both parties consent to the divorce, living apart for five years, and desertion.
Acknowledgment of service
A copy of the petition must be sent to the other party along with a statement of arrangements for the children (if applicable) and an acknowledgment of service. The respondent must inform the petitioner in the acknowledgment of service whether they will be contesting the divorce. The acknowledgment of service is therefore an extremely important document as it shows the court that the other party is aware of the petition. If the other party refuses to return the acknowledgment of service you may have to arrange for a process server or bailiff to serve the document and make an affidavit stating that they have done so.
If the court is satisfied that there are valid grounds for divorce it may well grant what is known as a decree nisi. A decree nisi will generally be granted when a divorce is not being contested and there are valid grounds for divorce. The party who made the petition must then apply to have the decree made absolute which they cannot do until at least six weeks and one day from the date of the decree nisi.
The decree absolute is what actually ends the marriage, as opposed to the decree nisi which merely declares there are satisfactory grounds. Once the decree absolute has been pronounced the marriage has officially ended and usually the parties will begin ancillary relief proceedings: the name given for deciding how the matrimonial assets should be split.
Ancillary relief proceedings
The ancillary relief proceedings are often fiercely contested as a judge will rule on who should have what from the matrimonial assets. The ancillary relief process can be quite long and usually involves three trips to court.
- A first appointment in which a judge outlines his position and ensures appropriate disclosure has taken place.
- A financial dispute resolution hearing in which a judge (a different judge from who will be in attendance at the final hearing) will give an indication of what he would order in the hope the parties then settle on similar terms and avoid a final hearing.
- A final hearing in which an order will be made.
With the potential for several court visits, it is in both parties’ interests to try to facilitate an early settlement to avoid significant legal costs.